Category Archives: 2040 Asteroid

More on the Space/Time Continuum (sort of)

 
 
Speaking about the space/time continuum made me start worrying about asteroids again. I also listened to a story on the news about the meteorites that hit Russia last May which said that there was a double seismic rebound in the crust of the entire earth when the meteorite struck the earth. Yikes! We are, after all just a tiny speck of a planet circling a yellow sun at the edge of the known universe. We are very lucky that we have not been more vulnerable to space rubble than we apparently are. Not too many objects make it to our little arm of our spiral galaxy. There is a huge asteroid due in 2040, although many of us may not be around to see it. It was thought that this asteroid might hit our lovely planet and take it out. Recent articles say that this will not happen. This asteroid will not be a threat to Earth. The last week of June was a very busy one for news so this little piece of good news may have gotten lost in the shuffle.

Good news confirmed: Asteroid won’t hit Earth in 2040

Observations from Hawaii remove any doubt about encounter with 2011 AG5

A new study confirms that a huge asteroid will pass harmlessly by Earth in 28 years.

New observations of the asteroid 2011 AG5 now give astronomers complete confidence that the 460–foot-wide (140-meter-wide) space rock won’t hit Earth in the year 2040. When it was discovered last year, scientists said that 2011 AG5 had a 1-in-500 chance of impact with our planet.

Astronomers solidified the asteroid’s harmless status during an observation campaign in October, using the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii. The finding added more support to a NASA study that came to a similar conclusion in June based on months of observations of asteroid 2011 AG5.

The researchers behind the latest study say the asteroid shouldn’t get any closer than 550,000 miles (890,000 kilometers) — about twice the distance between Earth and the moon.

“These were extremely difficult observations of a very faint object,” the University of Hawaii’s Richard Wainscoat, a member of the team of researchers monitoring 2011 AG5, said in a statement. “We were surprised by how easily the Gemini telescope was able to recover such a faint asteroid so low in the sky.”

Just because it is a large asteroid doesn’t mean it’s easy to see, scientists said. Researchers used the Gemini North to photograph the asteroid three times in October.

NASA astronomers and other scientists regularly monitor the sky for asteroids that could pose a potential impact threat to Earth. About 9,000 such near-Earth asteroids have been discovered to date, though up to a million or more could exist, NASA scientists say.

Nearly 95 percent of the largest near-Earth asteroids, those larger than 1 kilometer (0.6 miles) in size, have been identified, NASA scientists say. The space agency’s Asteroid Watch program to monitor nearby space rocks is based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif.

But in case you’re interested here is the Goldstone Asteroid schedule for the next few years:

Goldstone Asteroid Schedule

Upcoming Goldstone Observations

 

Last update: 2013 Jun 26
http://echo.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroids/goldstone_asteroid_schedule.html

 

 

(The Arecibo asteroid radar schedule is available here.)

 

                                                  Needs
                                        Needs     Physical
                         Target      Astrometry?  Observations?
2013 Jul 17-20    153349 2001 PJ9        Yes        Yes          
2013 Aug  3-12    277475 2005 WK4        No         Yes          PHA          AES  
2013 Aug 21-27     52760 1998 ML14       No         Yes          PHA          AES
2013 Aug 21-25    137126 1999 CF9        No         Yes          PHA
2013 Aug 25 & 27         2007 CN26       No         Yes          PHA
2013 Aug 26       232691 2004 AR1        No         Yes          PHA
2013 Sep 22-26    152664 1998 FW4        No         Yes          PHA          AES
2013 Sep 25-29    329437 2002 OA22       No         Yes          PHA               NHATS
2013 Sep 28-Oct 2        2002 NV16       No         Yes          PHA               NHATS
2013 Nov                 2001 AV43       YES        Yes          PHA          AES  NHATS

 

2014 Jan          252346 2007 SJ         No         Yes          PHA          AES
2014 Feb                 2006 DP14       Yes        Yes          PHA          AES  Astrometry is needed just before closest approach
2014 Feb          348306 2005 AY28       Yes        No           PHA
2014 Mar          275677 2000 RS11       Yes        Yes          PHA
2014 Apr                 2004 FG11       No         Yes          PHA   BINARY
2014 Apr                 2003 HM         YES        Yes          PHA
2014 Apr          304330 2006 SX217      No         Yes          PHA          AES
2014 May      Comet 209P/2004 CB LINEAR  Yes        Yes               COMET   Imaging target. May also generate an intense meteor shower.
2014 Jun          154275 2002 SR41       YES        Yes          PHA
2014 Aug                 2010 LE15       Yes        Yes          PHA
2014 Aug          285944 2001 RZ11       Yes        Yes               Astrometry is needed shortly before closest approach
2014 Aug          163132 2002 CU11       YES        Yes          PHA          AES
2014 Aug-Sep      333587 2006 KM103      No         Yes          PHA
2014 Sep           68267 2001 EA16       No         Yes    
2014 Sep          276049 2002 CE26       Yes        Yes               Astrometry is needed shortly before closest approach         
2014 Oct            2340 Hathor          No         Yes          PHA
2014 Dec                 2005 YQ96       Yes        Yes          PHA
 
2015 Jan          357849 2004 BL86       YES        Yes          PHA  Closest flyby by something this large (H=18.8) until 2027: 3.1 LD
2015 Feb                 2002 RQ25       No         Yes    
2015 Feb           90416 2003 YK118      No         Yes          PHA
2015 Mar          141527 2002 FG7        No         Yes          PHA
2015 May          285331 1999 FN53       Yes        Yes                       Astrometry is needed shortly before closest approach
2015 Jun            1566 Icarus          No         Yes          PHA
2015 Jul                 2011 UW158      Yes        Yes          PHA               NHATS  VERY strong radar target
2015 Jul                 1994 AW1        No         Yes          PHA  BINARY (not previously observed with radar)
2015 Jul           85989 1999 JD6        No         Yes          PHA
2015 Aug          348400 2005 JF21       Yes        Yes          PHA  Astrometry is needed shortly before closest approach
2015 Aug          206378 2003 RB         Yes        Yes          PHA
2015 Oct                 2006 UY64       Yes        Yes          
2015 Nov                 2005 UL5        Yes        Yes          PHA  Astrometry is needed in the fall of 2015
2015 Dec           33342 1998 WT24       Yes        Yes          PHA
2015 Dec          163899 2003 SD220      Yes        Yes          PHA               NHATS
2015 Dec                 1995 YR1        No         Yes          PHA
2015 Dec          294739 2008 CM         YES        Yes          PHA

 

2016 Jan           85990 1999 JV6        No         Yes          PHA
2016 Jan          337866 2001 WL15       No         Yes
2016 Jan            1685 Toro            No         No
2016 Mar      Comet 252P/2000 G1 LINEAR  Yes        Yes              COMET
2016 Mar                 1994 UG         Yes        Yes 
2016 Apr                 2004 FG11       No         Yes          PHA BINARY
2016 Apr                 2005 GR33       Yes        Yes
2016 Apr                 2003 KO2        Yes        Yes          PHA
2016 May                 2008 TZ3        No         Yes          PHA
2016 May                 2006 UK         Yes        Yes          PHA
2016 Jul          154244 2002 KL6        No         Yes          
2016 Sep          357024 1999 YR14       No         Yes          PHA
2016 Oct                 2011 DU         Yes        No           PHA               NHATS
2016 Oct                 2003 TL4        No         Yes          PHA
2016 Oct-Nov      164121 2003 YT1        No         Yes          PHA BINARY
2016 Nov           96590 1998 XB         No         Yes
2016 Nov                 1997 XR2        No         Yes          PHA
2016 Nov-Dec        5143 Heracles        No         Yes              BINARY
2016 Dec                 2006 XD2        Yes        Yes          PHA
2016 Dec                 2008 UL90       Yes        Yes          PHA

 

2017 Jan          226514 2003 UX34       No         Yes          PHA
2017 Jan            7341 1991 VK         No         Yes          PHA
2017 Mar            5604 1992 FE         No         Yes          PHA
2017 Mar          215588 2003 HF2        No         Yes          PHA
2017 Apr          143404 2003 BD44       No         Yes          PHA
2017 May            6063 Jason           No         Yes
2017 May                 2007 WV4        Yes        Yes          PHA
2017 Jun           90075 2002 VU94       No         Yes          PHA 
2017 Aug          153415 2001 QP153      No         Yes          
2017 Aug-Sep        3122 Florence        No         Yes          PHA
2017 Sep          310560 2001 QL142      No         Yes          PHA
2017 Oct                 2012 TC4        Yes        Yes                            NHATS  Very, very strong
2017 Oct          171576 1999 VP11       No         Yes          PHA
2017 Oct                 2003 UV11       No         Yes          PHA
2017 Oct                 2012 TC4        Yes        Yes                            NHATS
2017 Nov                 1989 UP         No         Yes          PHA
2017 Nov                 2006 UK         No         Yes          PHA
2017 Nov          163696 2003 EB50       No         Yes
2017 Dec            3200 Phaethon        No         Yes          PHA  Possible dead comet
2017 Dec                 2007 AG         Yes        No           PHA

 

2018 Jan                 2003 YO3        No         Yes
2018 Jan          306383 1993 VD         No         Yes          PHA
2018 Feb          276055 2002 AJ129      No         Yes          PHA
2018 Feb          162882 2001 FD58       No         Yes          PHA
2018 Mar            1981 Midas           No         Yes          PHA
2018 Apr                 2004 FG11       No         Yes          PHA  BINARY
2018 Apr                 2005 SE71       Yes        Yes          PHA
2018 Apr          194126 2001 SG276      No         Yes          
2018 Apr                 2002 JR100      Yes        Yes 
2018 May                 1999 FN19       Yes        Yes               Astrometry needed in early 2018
2018 May                 2008 TZ3        No         Yes          PHA
2018 May           66391 1999 KW4        No         Yes          PHA  BINARY
2018 Jun                 2005 NW44       Yes        No
2018 Aug                 1998 SD9        No         Yes
2018 May           68347 2001 KB67       No         Yes          PHA
2018 Sep          144332 2004 DV24       No         Yes          PHA
2018 Nov                 2002 VE68       No         Yes          PHA
2018 Dec                 2003 NW1        Yes        No           PHA
2018 Dec        Comet 46P/Wirtanen       Yes        Yes               COMET
2018 Dec                 2007 EJ         No         Yes  
2018 Dec          163899 2003 SD220      No         Yes          PHA               NHATS

 

2019 Jan                 2004 XP14       No         Yes          PHA
2019 Jan             433 Eros            No         No     
2019 Mar          137805 2001 FM129      No         Yes          PHA
2019 Mar                 2005 FC3        Yes        No
2019 Apr          163081 2002 AG29       No         Yes                            NHATS
2019 May                 2008 HS3        No         Yes                            NHATS
2019 May           68950 2002 QF15       No         Yes          PHA
2019 May           66391 1999 KW4        No         Yes          PHA  BINARY
2019 Aug                 2005 CL7        Yes        Yes
2019 Aug          141593 2002 HK12       No         Yes          PHA
2019 Aug           66146 1998 TU3        No         Yes 
2019 Sep                 2002 CF26       No         Yes
2019 Sep                 2000 QW7        No         Yes          PHA
2019 Sep                 1998 FF14       No         Yes          PHA
2019 Oct          162082 1998 HL1        No         Yes          PHA
2019 Nov                 2006 SF6        Yes        Yes          PHA  Astrometry needed in 2018-2019
2019 Dec                 2000 AZ93       No         No           PHA
2019 Dec          216258 2006 WH1        Yes        No           PHA

 

b>Tentative partial schedule after 2019 (this is incomplete--there are a lot
of objects that will be added):

 

2020 Feb          163373 2002 PZ39       No         Yes          PHA
2020 Apr           52768 1998 OR2        Yes        Yes          PHA  Astrometry needed in 2020
2020 Nov-Dec      153201 2000 WO107      No         Yes          PHA

 

2021 Jan                 2008 AF4        Yes        Yes          PHA 
2021 Feb-Mar             1999 RM45       No         Yes          PHA          
2021 Mar                 2001 FO32       No         Yes          PHA
2021 Dec          163899 2003 SD220      No         Yes          PHA
2021 Dec            4660 Nereus          No         Yes          PHA  Lightcurves are desirable

 

"Physical observations" refer to lightcurves, colors, spectroscopy, and infrared radiometry.
"PHA" = Potentially Hazardous Asteroid




       

Past Goldstone Observations

 

2001 Dec          1998 WT24             Completed.

 

2002 Jan          4660 Nereus           Completed.
2002 Mar          2000 GD2              Completed.
2002 Apr          2002 FD6              Completed.
2002 Apr          38071 1999 GU3        Completed.
2002 Jun          2002 FC               Completed.
2002 Jun-Jul      5604 1992 FE          Completed.
2002 Oct-Nov      35396 1997 XF11       Completed.
2002 Oct-Nov      2002 SY50             Completed.
2002 Nov          2002 VE68             Completed.

 

2003 Jun          1998 FH12             Completed.
2003 Jun-Jul      2003 MS2              Completed.
2003 Aug          37655 Illapa (1994 PM)Completed.
2003 Sep          2003 RU11             Cancelled: Too weak to detect.
2003 Sep          22771 1999 CU3        Completed.
2003 Sep          2003 SR84             Completed. 
2003 Oct          2003 SS84             Completed.
2003 Oct-Nov      2003 TL4              Completed.
2003 Nov          1937 UB (Hermes)      Completed.
2003 Nov          1990 OS               Completed.
2003 Nov          65803 1996 GT         Completed.

 

2004 Jan-Feb      6239 Minos            Completed.
2004 Apr          1999 DJ4              Cancelled due to hardware problems.

 

2004 May          2003 YT1              Cancelled due to hardware problems. 
2004 May          2001 US16             Completed. All but the final track were cancelled due to hardware problems.
2004 Jun          25143 Itokawa         Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2004 Jul          1999 MN               Completed. Also observed at Arecibo

 

2005 Mar          22753 1998 WT         Completed.
2005 Mar-Apr      1999 RR28             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo    
2005 Apr          2005 EU2              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2005 May          2005 ED318            Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2005 Aug          1992 UY4              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2005 Aug          2005 OE3              Completed.
2005 Sep          1999 RQ36             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2005 Sep          66063 1998 RO1     
2005 Nov          1862 Apollo           Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2005 Nov          2005 JE46             Completed.        
2005 Dec          2005 WC1              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo

 

2006 Mar          23187 2000 PN9        Completed. Observations at Arecibo were cancelled.
2006 May          73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2006 May          2006 GY2              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2006 May-Jun      2004 DC               Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2006 Jul          2004 XP14             Completed. 
2006 Jul-Aug      2006 BQ6              Completed. Observations at Arecibo were cancelled.  
2006 Oct          2001 CB21             Cancelled at Goldstone; observed at Arecibo
2006 Oct          2006 RZ               Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2006 Dec          2004 XL14             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.

 

2007 Jan          7341 1991 VK          Cancelled at Goldstone due to conflicts.  Observed at Arecibo.
2007 Jan          2006 AM4              Completed.
2007 Mar-Apr      2006 VV2              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo and Greenbank.
2007 May          1862 Apollo           Cancelled due to maintenance.
2007 Jun          6R10DB9 (2006 RH120)  Completed.
2007 Jul-Aug      2007 DT103            Completed.
2007 Oct          2340 Hathor           Cancelled due to conflicts.
2007 Nov          1989 UR               Completed. 
2007 Nov          2007 VD12             Completed.
2007 Dec          3200 Phaethon         Cancelled due to maintenance and conflicts.  Observed at Arecibo.
2007 Dec          2007 XH16             Not scheduled due to conflicts.  Observed at Arecibo.

 

2008 Jan          2005 WJ56             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Jan          2007 TU24             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Feb          4450 Pan              CANCELLED DUE TO SPACECRAFT CONFLICTS. Observed at Arecibo.  
2008 Feb          153591 2001 SN263     CANCELLED DUE TO SPACECRAFT CONFLICTS. Observed at Arecibo.
2008 Feb          2002 TD66             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Mar          2008 EL6              Not scheduled due to conflicts.  Not scheduled at Arecibo due to maintenance.
2008 Apr          2005 NB7              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Jul          2008 BT18             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2008 Jul          90403 2003 YE45       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2008 Jul          2005 RC34             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Aug          35107 1991 VH         Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Sep          185851 2000 DP107     Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Sep          137032 1998 UO1       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Sep-Oct      2008 QS11             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2008 Oct          164400 2005 GN59      Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2008 Nov          4179 Toutatis         CANCELLED  Observed at Arecibo.
2008 Dec          2008 EV5              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.

 

2009 Jan          136849 1998 CS1       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 Feb          2006 AS2              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 Feb          1999 AQ10             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 Mar          2009 DR3              Completed.
2009 Mar          2009 DO111            Completed. 
2009 Mar          2008 SV11             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 May          2001 SG286            Requested; could not be scheduled.
2009 May-Jun      143651 2003 QO104     Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 Jun          136617 1994 CC        Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2009 Jun          2001 FE90             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2009 Aug          2009 KC3              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2009 Sep          2000 CO101            Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2009 Sep          152664 1998 FW4       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2009 Oct          68216 2001 CV26       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2009 Dec          2009 WV25             Completed. 
2009 Dec          2003 YL118            Cancelled due to large orbital uncertainites.

 

2010 Jan          2010 AL30             Completed.
2010 Jan          2010 AF40             Completed.     
2010 Feb          2009 UN3              Completed. 
2010 Feb          2010 DJ1              Completed. 
2010 Apr          2005 YU55             Cancelled due to maintenance  Observed at Arecibo
2010 Jun          1999 MN               Cancelled due to maintenance
2010 Jun          2007 XB10             Cancelled due to maintenance
2010 Sep-Oct      (137032) 1998 UO1     Cancelled due to maintenance
2010 Oct          2001 TB               Cancelled due to maintenance
2010 Oct          Comet 103P/Hartley 2  Cancelled due to maintenance. Observed at Arecibo
2010 Oct          2003 UV11             Completed.  Bistatic with Arecibo.
2010 Nov          2002 VE68             Completed.
2010 Nov          2005 GC120            Completed. 
2010 Dec          2010 JL33             Completed.

 

2011 Jan          2011 AH5              Cancelled due to equipment problems.
2011 May-Jun      2009 BD               Completed. Echoes not detected, possibly due to pointing problems.
2011 Jun          2011 MD               Completed. Echoes not detected, possibly due to pointing problems.
2011 Jul          2011 EZ78             Completed.
2011 Aug          Comet 45P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (HMP)        Completed.
2011 Oct          1036 Ganymed          Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.
2011 Oct          2011 LC19             Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.
2011 Nov          2005 YU55             Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.  AES
2011 Nov          175706 1996 FG3       Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.
2011 Dec          2000 YA               Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.  AES
2011 Dec          2003 AK18             Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.  

 

2012 Jan          2011 YH40             Completed.                             AES
2012 Jan          7341 1991 VK          Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.
2012 Jan          433 Eros              Completed.                            
2012 Jan          2012 BX34             Completed.                             AES
2012 Feb          2006 CJ               Completed. Also observed at Arecibo. 
2012 Feb          162421 2000 ET70      Completed. Also observad at Arecibo.   AES 
2012 Feb          2011 CP4              Completed. Also observad at Arecibo.   AES 
2012 Mar          192642 1999 RD32      Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.   
2012 Apr          2012 EG5              Echoes not detected. SNRs likely too weak.   AES
2012 Apr          2012 HM               Completed.                             AES
2012 Apr          2012 HP13             Echoes not detected. 
2012 May          1998 HE3              Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2012 May-Jun      2007 LE               Completed. Also observed at Arecibo
2012 Jun          2001 CQ36             Completed. Detected with 250 kW.       AES
2012 Jun          308242 2005 GO21      Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.   AES 
2012 Jun          2012 MY2              Completed. AES
2012 Jul          144411 2004 EW9       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2012 Jul          153958 2002 AM31      Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.   AES  
2012 Jul          2006 CF               Completed.
2012 Jul          2012 OQ               Completed.
2012 Sep          2012 QG42             Completed.                       AES
2012 Sep          2012 QC8              Cancelled due to DSS-14 subreflector problem.
2012 Oct          2012 TC4              Echoes not detected. Likely equipment issues.    
2012 Oct          136993 1998 ST49      Completed. 
2012 Oct-Nov      214869 2007 PA8       Completed. AES
2012 Nov          2010 JK1              Completed. AES 
2012 Nov          1994 XD               Completed.   
2012 Dec          4179 Toutatis         Completed.
2012 Dec          2012 XB112            Completed; piggyback on time for Toutatis; NHATS target
2012 Dec          2012 XM55             Echoes not detected. Target likely too weak.
2013 Jan          99942 Apophis         Completed. AES  Also Dec. 20-21 during Toutatis tracks
2013 Jan          2002 AY1              Completed.    
2013 Feb          3752 Camillo          Completed.
2013 Feb          2013 BS45             Completed.   AES  NHATS  Piggyback on Camillo
2013 Feb          2013 BV15             Completed.   AES         Piggyback on Camillo
2013 Feb          2012 DA14             Completed.   AES  NHATS
2013 Mar          2013 ET               Completed.   AES
2013 Mar          7888 1993 UC          Completed.  Also observed at Arecibo.
2013 Mar          2013 FB8              Completed. AES  NHATS
2013 Apr          242643 2005 NZ6       Completed.         
2013 Apr          2013 GH66    NHATS Did not observe due to rapid rotation period. SNRs=0; piggyback on 2005 NZ6
2013 May          360191 1988 TA        Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.
2013 May          163364 2002 OD20      Completed.          NHATS
2013 May          2013 JM22             Attempted on May 20 but not detected. Target likely too weak.
2013 May          2013 HT15             Completed.
2013 May          285263 1998 QE2       Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.    AES  
2013 Jun          2013 JR28             Completed. Also observed at Arecibo.



The Goldstone Solar System Radar is part of the JPL/NASA Deep Space Network.

The Goldstone main antenna, DSS14, is a fully steerable, 70-meter, parabolic reflector with horn feeds. Its 500-kilowatt transmitter is the world’s most powerful at X-band (8560 MHz, 3.5-cm).

 

Bistatic experiments using DSS-14 transmissions and reception of echoes at DSS-13, a 34-m antenna 22 km away, have been conducted on several very close targets.

Bistatic experiments employing transmission from DSS-14 and reception of echoes at the 27-antenna Very Large Array ( VLA) in New Mexico have synthesized a beamwidth as small as 0.24 seconds of arc, vs. 2 minutes of arc for single-dish observations with Arecibo or Goldstone. In coming years, bistatic observations between Arecibo and Goldstone, or using transmission from Arecibo or Goldstone and reception at the 100-m Greenbank Telescope (GBT), now under construction, should prove advantageous for outer-planet satellites and nearby asteroids and comets. Test observations using transmission from Goldstone or Arecibo and interferometric reception with the 10-antenna Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) are planned for 1998, and in principle can produce resolutions near a milliarcsecond.



Click herefor plots of predictions of the single-date signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as a function of asteroid size, distance, and declination, for Arecibo and Goldstone. The SNR, which increases as the square root of the number of dates, is comparable to the number of pixels that images can place on a target.

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  Dr. Lance A. M. Benner      |   PHONE:  (818) 354-7412
  Mail Stop 183-601           |   FAX:    (818) 393-4445
  Jet Propulsion Laboratory   |   email:  lance.benner@jpl.nasa.gov
  California Institute of Technology
  Pasadena, CA 91109-8099